In this series, I dig a little deeper into the meaning of psychology-related terms. This week’s term is defense mechanisms.
The concept of defense mechanisms was originally proposed by Sigmund Freud. They’re strategies that are used unconsciously in order to protect the ego when faced with uncomfortable feelings.
Freud identified a number of defense mechanisms, as did his daughter Anna Freud and other researchers in later work. Here are a few examples.
Repression pushes thoughts and feelings into the unconscious. However, that doesn’t make the associated distress disappear, and Freud believed the thoughts would bubble up into the subconscious in the form of dreams or so-called Freudian slips.
The ego views it as unacceptable to have a certain feeling, so that feeling is projected towards another person so it no longer belongs to the ego. In a conflict with another person, this could take the form of accusing the other person of feeling something that’s actually what you yourself are feeling.
Strong feelings towards one person are acted out on someone else who is seen as a more acceptable target. Based on the explanation from Simply Psychology, it sounds like displacement happens when the id (the source of primitive drives) wants X, the superego (the conscience) won’t allow X, so the ego substitutes Y as a compromise.
This could occur if you were angry at your boss, but since showing this anger would be inappropriate, you end up taking it out on your spouse when you get home after work.
Sublimation involves morphing something unacceptable into something acceptable. Simply Psychology offers this oh-so-Freudian example: “fixation during the anal stage may cause a person to sublimate their desire to handle faeces with an enjoyment of pottery.” There was also this delightful observation: “Sublimation for Freud was the cornerstone of civilized life, as arts and science are all sublimated sexuality.” Why not, right?
I’d say this is probably the rockstar go-to for many of us. However, when it becomes less conscious it can start to predominate and become pathological.
As we grow older we tend to develop more advanced and adaptive coping strategies. When things get difficult, though, people can start to retreat from stressful situations by reverting to the coping strategies that worked at an earlier stage of development.
Unfortunately, when childlike behaviours emerge, that often doesn’t go over all that well with others. In my work as a nurse, I’d say I’ve seen regression most often in people with borderline personality disorder who are in significant distress. I’ve also seen staff interpret this behaviour as very willful rather than arising from an unconscious defense mechanism. Having a stuffed animal while on a psych ward is sometimes (although of course not always) an indicator of regression.
Most of us rationalize to some extent, but the more sensitive the ego, the more unconsciously this happens.
This occurs when your natural reaction to something is unwanted or unacceptable. Instead, the mind forms a reaction that’s very much the opposite of the natural reaction.
There are a variety of other examples, including passive-aggression, hypochondriasis, intellectualization, and dissociation.
While I would agree that these are strategies that we use to protect ourselves psychologically, overall I’m not all that keen on Freud’s tendency to reduce everything down to sex. There’s nothing wrong with sex, but I don’t think it underpins everything in our minds all of the time.
Or who knows, maybe that’s just because I’m not getting laid. Or maybe I’m just repressing my penis envy and Electra complex.
Do you recognize any of these defense mechanisms as ones that you use yourself?
You can find the rest of the what is… series in the Psychology Corner.