What Is… Repression vs. Suppression

Repression and suppression: Freudian defense mechanisms

In this series, I dig a little deeper into the meaning of psychology-related terms. This week, we’re looking at repression vs. suppression.

Suppression and repression are examples of Freudian defense mechanisms. They serve the purpose of removing unwanted information from conscious awareness. Suppression is done consciously, while repression is automatic and unconscious.

Freud’s psychoanalytic theory

Freud proposed repression as a mechanism to describe why his patients had such difficulty recalling past memories. He later described repression as “the corner-stone on which the whole structure of psychoanalysis rests” (as quoted in Wikipedia).

Freud believed that even though the memories couldn’t be accessed consciously, they would still have influence subconsciously in other ways.

Wikipedia has a page devoted to the concept of motivated forgetting. During World War I, memory repression was a regularly prescribed treatment for soldiers who’d been through highly traumatic experiences.

Research on repression & suppression

A Scientific American article described a study in which some of the subjects were asked to actively suppress memories of word pairings they had rehearsed. MRI scans showed activation in the prefrontal cortex, the area of the brain responsible for executive functioning.  Later, the subjects who were asked to suppress had lower word recall than subjects who were asked to recall the word pairs while in the MRI scanner.

Suppression of visual stimuli occurs regularly and allows us to selectively focus on certain things. There’s a fascinating case report in the same Scientific American article of someone with dissociative identity disorder. It’s unclear how many alters there were, but at least one was sighted and one was blind. The person was shown visual stimuli while connected to an EEG to monitor electrical activity in the brain. The sighted alter had a normal electrical response, while the blind alter had a greatly reduced response. That’s not something that’s under conscious control, so it’s truly remarkable.

Repression, in the sense proposed by Freud, is not universally recognized as legitimate by psychologists. There may be other mechanisms that come into play, such as the “normal” forgetting that all of us experience at times. The question of repression is particularly contentious when it comes to the recall of memories that were repressed earlier in life and completely forgotten.

Therapy and repressed memories

False memories may arise during therapy, and there’s no clear way to distinguish these from actual repressed memories. It’s considered rare that childhood incidents that were entirely forgotten would be remembered later in life, and the majority of people who have experienced childhood abuse remember either part or all of the abuse.

Sometimes therapy is done to try to recover repressed memories. This is controversial because of the risk of eliciting false pseudo-memories, and recovered-memory therapy is not accepted as a mainstream practice in the fields of psychology or psychiatry. Techniques used may include hypnosis, age regression, guided visualization, or the use of “truth serum” drugs like barbiturates. It’s important to differentiate this from legitimate trauma therapy that works on processing memories.

Overall, this seems like a topic where probably there’s more that’s unknown than is known for sure.


The Psychology Corner: Insights into psychology and psychological tests

The Psychology Corner has an overview of terms covered in the What Is… series, along with a collection of scientifically validated psychological tests.

13 thoughts on “What Is… Repression vs. Suppression”

  1. Great post! Our brain works in a really amazing manner! I find both repression and suppression are a method our brain use to protect us, from whatever makes us upset ! I wonder why they don’t use these methods anymore with PTSD patients !
    Thanks for sharing this post !

  2. Oh memories! What a sweet topic. I don’t know if repression would mean a total forgetting what happened (for me). But I do believe that some feelings, experiences and memories are tucked away in a kind of safety blanket. We do ‘repres’ them because it’s not fun to think about them every day, the forgetting protects us. And when you’re finaly ready to take them on (after 30 years in my case!)I find it hard to retrieve them or to adress them. I do remember but I don’t have words to proces the emotions. In that view I think of that early memories ‘as forgotten’ but they are not ‘gone’. I find that the body remembers too in the sense that noises and smells can bring memories back in a ‘flash’. It’s so intriguing!

  3. I have done horrible things in my relationship in the beginning that I don’t fully remember. I think it’s because I regret doing them or I just don’t want to remember doing them.

    This seems similar to a form of therapy I tried where I am sort of hypnotized and work to switch a negative memory into something positive. It involved changing how it happened and imagining it differently and changing how I felt at the time.

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