A Brief History of Stigma (Coming Soon)

Book cover: A Brief History of Stigma by Ashley L. Peterson

A Brief History of Stigma is the fourth book by Ashley L. Peterson from Mental Health @ Home Books. It will be released later in 2021.

It explores the past and present of stigma, including the theory around it and the contexts in which it occurs, to give a solid basis to examine strategies to reduce stigma and critically evaluate their effectiveness.

A Brief History of Stigma: Outline

Part I: The Nature of the Beast: These chapters explore what stigma is, along with relevant sociological theory. Common stereotypes that are part of mental illness stigma are discussed, including the stereotyped link to violence.

Part II: Stigma in Context: This section covers different areas where the effects of both public stigma and structural stigma can be seen. Specific contexts that are explored include employment, housing, health care, and law enforcement.

Part III: What Can We Do About It?: Parts I and II set the stage for section III, which explores stigma reduction strategies and their effectiveness. You’ll likely be surprised to learn how ineffective certain commonly used strategies are when it comes to changing public attitudes. Chapters are devoted to the role of language, strategies to address structural stigma, including stigma in health care, and ways that we can respond as individuals who experience stigma

Chapter List
  1. Introduction
  1. Part I: The Nature of the Beast
    1. 1) What Is Stigma?
    2. 2) Violence Stereotypes
    3. 3) Stigma Masquerades
    4. 4) Suicide Stigma
    5. 5) Historical Mistreatment of the Mentally Ill
  1. Part II: Stigma in Context
    1. 6) Sociocultural Context
    2. 7) Structural Stigma
    3. 8) Health Care
    4. 9) Health Professionals Experiencing Mental Illness
    5. 10) Law Enforcement & the Justice System
  1. Part III: What Can We Do About It?
    1. 11) Challenges to Address Stigma
    2. 12) How Much Does Language Matter?
    3. 13) Individual Responses to Stigma
    4. 14) Addressing Structural & Health Care Stigma

Conclusion


What Stigma Is

Stigma includes:

  • Stereotypes
  • Prejudice
  • Discrimination

There’s nothing about stigma that’s inherent in mental illness. It’s a social phenomenon that stems from which groups society has labelled as socially acceptable and which groups/identities have been deemed deviant. It’s learned through the process of socialization, which begins early in life.

How do we fight stigma most effectively? Education? Contact? Language change? Protest?

Strategies to Stop the Stigma

Three broad approaches are often used as part of stigma reduction campaigns. These are explored further in the post on fighting stigma most effectively, which is based on Patrick Corrigan’s excellent book The Stigma Effect.

Protest

Protest strategies point out stereotypes and discrimination and call on people to address the injustices identified. However, they may end up triggering reactance, a form of psychological resistance that arises from a sense that one’s freedom is threatened. This actually tends to promote the opposite of the intended effect, with people doing the opposite of what’s being asked in order to exert their freedom.

Education

Education about mental illness can provide corrective information to counteract stereotypes. These types of strategies can be done on a large scale and are relatively low-cost to implement. However, this approach assumes that lack of information is the cause of stigma, which isn’t necessarily the case.

Contact

Contact with people who have a mental illness is the most effective way to decrease stigma. Specifically, it’s most effective when that contact involves:

  • equal social status
  • one-on-one contact
  • engaging together in a rewarding activity
  • interactions that moderately disconfirm stereotypes (but the person is still “convincing” as someone who has a mental illness)

Anti-Stigma Organizations

These are just a few of the organizations working to promote dialogue around mental health and stigma on a broader scale. On their sites, you can get involved with their campaigns and read the stories of others living with mental illness.


Legislative & Policy Advocacy

Whether you like politics or not, what governments do can have a big impact on the lives of people with mental illness. That means we need to make sure that they hear our voices. Getting in touch with your local elected officials is one way of getting active; you can also jump on board with the efforts of mental health organizations lobbying for positive changes.

You may be interested in getting involved with these organizations’ advocacy efforts:

These sites have resources for people conducting advocacy campaigns:

The Advocacy 101 video below is from the AFSP.

Raise Your Voice

In order to stop the stigma around mental illness, we need to speak up and show that we are not the stereotypes that people try to force onto us. Coming out as having a mental illness, and sharing both the challenges and obstacles overcome, is a powerful way of demonstrating to the world what mental illness actually looks like without the stereotypes. You don’t have to be an influencer to do this; you just need to be a regular person who’s willing to share your truth.

Tips & Tools:

Media

Speaking with the media is another option for getting the word out. The University of Kansas Community Toolbox has tips on media advocacy.

In the UK, the charity Mind has media volunteer opportunities.

The US site HARO (Help A Reporter Out) connects journalists with sources. You can sign up for their email list and keep an eye out for journalists looking to speak to people about mental health issues.

Speaking

Public speaking isn’t everyone’s cup of tea, but it can be a powerful way of sharing your story. Check with your local mental health charities to find out about speaking opportunities in your area. These national charities offer speaking opportunities:

Ways to share your mental health story, including large mental health sites that accept guest posts

Writing

The post Ways to share your story contains links to mental health sites where you can submit stories.


About Ashley L. Peterson

Ashley L. Peterson, author and creator of Mental Health @ Home

I began my career in health care as a pharmacist in 2002, and quickly returned to school to become a nurse two years later. I specialized in the field of mental health for my entire 15-year career, working with people with serious mental illness in both hospital and community settings.

Two years into my nursing career, I was hospitalized with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Since then, I’ve been passionate about challenging the stigma around mental illness. I completed a Master of Psychiatric Nursing degree in 2015, despite two hospitalizations while in grad school. My thesis work and several related academic journal publications focused on my experience of mental illness within the context of nursing culture. I’m no longer working due to my illness, but I continue my education and advocacy efforts online.

Watch for A Brief History of Stigma to be released later this year!

Mental illness: Stop the stigma - graphic of face and megaphone with the words "speak up"

You can find out more on the Stop the Stigma page, which provides an overview of the stigma-related topics covered on the Mental Health @ Home Blog.

Mental Health @ Home Books: Psych Meds Made Simple, Managing the Depression Puzzle, and Making Sense of Psychiatric Diagnosis
Mental Health @ Home Books by Ashley L. Peterson –
You can find them on my Amazon author page.