In this series, I dig a little deeper into the meaning of psychology-related terms. This week’s term is self-efficacy.
Essentially, self-efficacy refers to our belief in our ability to get shit done. Or, for a more textbook definition, there’s this quote from psychologist Alfred Bandura: “Perceived self-efficacy refers to belief in one’s agentive capabilities, that one can produce given levels of attainment.”
Social cognitive theory
Bandura first proposed the concept of self-efficacy as part of his social cognitive theory. The theory includes five additional constructs:
- reciprocal determinism of person and behaviour
- behavioural capability (actual capacity to act)
- observational learning
- reinforcements from the environment related to the behaviour
- expectations of a behaviour’s consequences
Locus of control
Self-efficacy is linked to an internal locus of control, meaning the individual believes that they have control over what happens to them. Highly self-efficacious individuals believe they have control over factors that make them successful, but they are more likely to attribute failures to external factors.
People who are more self-efficacious tend to be more resilient, as isolated failures don’t chip away at the overall sense of their own abilities. They are also more likely to use adaptive coping mechanisms in response to stressful or challenging situations, and less likely to use avoidance.
High self-efficacy is also a protective factor against anxiety and depression, and is linked to greater engagement in health promotion activities.
While self-esteem relates to our belief in our own worth, self-efficacy relates to functionality. Strong self-esteem can improve self-efficacy. Low self-esteem can lead to the perception that tasks are more difficult than they actually are, which tends to increase levels of stress. Behaviour becomes more erratic and unpredictable. Barriers are more likely to lead to giving up, whereas people who are self-efficaceous would tend to put in more effort.
One of the measures available is the General Self-Efficacy Scale. I scored a 17/40, but I think that’s less about my perception of my abilities and more to do with the fact that I know the limitations of my illness in certain types of situations. The scale asks about some of those kinds of situations, and doesn’t offer a way to account for diminished capacity. In the past, when I have not been depressed, I was generally quite self-efficacious. I didn’t let messing up get in the way of believing that overall, I was still capable.
Bandura’s theory identifies four ways for people to become more self-efficacious:
- mastery experiences (being able to master new skills)
- vicarious experiences through observing other people in our lives who are highly self-efficacious
- verbal persuasion (being told you can do something)
- emotional wellness and interpretations of physiological responses
In keeping with the last point, I think having mental illness well controlled is an important element in being self-efficacious.
How would you characterize your own self-efficacy?