Insights into Psychology

What Is… Paranoid Personality Disorder

Paranoid personality disorder symptoms

In this series, I dig a little deeper into the meaning of psychology-related terms. This week’s term is paranoid personality disorder.

With this post on paranoid personality disorder (PPD), we’ve now covered all ten personality disorders in the DSM-5 (you can find the rest of them in the Psychology Corner). PPD falls within the DSM-5’s cluster A (odd/eccentric) personality disorders.

Symptoms

People with PPD are distrustful and assume that others have negative intentions toward them. This pattern of suspiciousness is pervasive and occurs even when there is no evidence to support it, but it’s not to the extent that it becomes delusional.

Paranoid personality disorder symptoms include:

  • persistent suspiciousness and mistrust of others
  • suspicion, without justification, of being exploited, injured, or deceived by others
  • fixated on unjustified doubts about the reliability of people in their lives
  • reluctant to confide in others out of concern that it will be used against them
  • misinterpret things in the environment as having an underlying belittling, hostile, or threatening meaning
  • hold onto grudges
  • quick to interpret others as attacking their character/reputation, and quick to meet this with counterattack
  • ongoing suspicions, without justification, that their partner is cheating on them

As with other personality disorders, it doesn’t pop up out of the blue in adulthood; rather, symptoms are already well established by early adulthood. It’s normal for people to have some of these symptoms (like grudges) some of the time. To rise to the level of disorder, the symptoms must cause significant distress and impairment in functioning, although the person may well misattribute the cause of that distress/impairment.

Other characteristics

The International Classification of Diseases 10th Edition (ICD-10), which came before the World Health Organization’s revamp of personality disorder diagnoses in the ICD-11, proposed several subtypes of PPD: expansive, fanatic, querulant, and sensitive paranoid personality. The querulant type may overlap with people who are persistently litigious. The DSM-5 doesn’t identify any PPD subtypes.

Most often there is another type of disorder present as well, such as psychotic disorders, anxiety disorders, PTSD, or alcohol use disorders. Around 75% of people with PPD have a co-occurring personality disorder. Borderline and avoidant are the most common, followed by narcissistic.

Unlike psychotic disorders, the paranoia in PDD is not delusional, although when people are under extreme stress, short micro-psychotic episodes may occur. Instead, paranoia in PPD is a rigid cognitive style that shapes how people interpret the world around them.

It’s estimated that PPD occurs in 2.3-4.4% of the population, although the figure jumps to about 23% in prison populations. It’s more common in males than females. It can be disabling, as functioning is limited by suspiciousness. It increases the risk of violence and criminal behaviour, but of course, not everyone in PPD engages in these types of behaviours.

How it occurs

There seems to be a hereditary component, and possibly a genetic link to schizophrenia. Emotional or physical abuse in childhood can increase the risk of developing PPD. Brain injury may be a risk factor, as rates of PPD are higher among people who have experienced a brain injury.

From a cognitive theory perspective, PPD is thought to be the result of a combination of poor self-awareness and the belief that people are unfriendly. Freud, unsurprisingly, got sexual with it, believing that paranoia was a defense mechanism against unconscious homosexual desires.

Treatment

People with PPD seldom seek out treatment, as they see others as the problem, not themselves. The condition is difficult to treat, in large part because of lack of insight combined with mistrust of mental health professionals. Cognitive therapy, psychodynamic therapy, and short-term use of antipsychotics may be helpful.

Paranoia vs. PPD

When I was working at a community mental health team, I had a patient who had a psychotic disorder and probable paranoid personality disorder. It was exhausting for me to hear about all the wrongs that were done to him; I can’t imagine how exhausting that would have been inside his head. I suspect other people found him exhausting too and reacted in ways that fuelled the paranoid mindset. The meds kept the psychotic stuff under control, so what I was getting from him seemed to be all personality stuff. It was fascinating.

There are a lot of suspicious people out there, and probably the vast majority of them don’t deserve a paranoid personality disorder diagnosis. I don’t think it’s particularly useful to try to pathologize batshit non-psychiatrically crazy folk like Alex Jones, as performative paranoia doesn’t give much meaningful information about someone’s underlying psychological characteristics.

What are your thoughts on maintaining a degree of separation between run-of-the-mill conspiracy theory paranoia and paranoia in a psychiatric sense, whether that be PPD or psychosis?

Sources

The Psychology Corner: Insights into psychology and psychological tests

The Psychology Corner has an overview of terms covered in the What Is… series, along with a collection of scientifically validated psychological tests.

19 thoughts on “What Is… Paranoid Personality Disorder”

  1. My ex husband had many of these symptoms. It’s so important to pay attention to what they say about others and how they treat them, even if they are super nice to you. Because soon you will become one of THEM…

  2. Freud tried to explain many things by relating it to sexuality. I think it was he with the obsession that he imparted onto others through his theorising!

    It must be a difficult life to live with paranoid personality disorder. I can see early childhood having a significant impact here like you say with abuse, or even general upbringing if parents/adults around you are paranoid, mistrusting and sceptical. It’d be interesting to look at neuroscience findings here too for brain function and activity because if brain injury can be related to PPD then perhaps so too could general brain function, be that from birth or due to rewiring or chemical changes. xx

    1. There are indications that the whole of PD cluster A has predisposing factors that relate to schizophrenia, but I didn’t come across anything definitive. Hopefully it won’t take science too long to figure that out. Unless the scientists are all distracted by the sex talk.

  3. Hmm…. I was always too naive even though they really were out to get me. I had some sort of reckoning in which I awoke to how people often have selfish motives, and at that point I became retroactively vengeful and diabolical toward people who’d wronged me when I was younger, such as youth leaders. Suffice it to say I have a long list of enemies. But what was hard about that was realizing that 99% or more of the people around me weren’t high-quality people worth knowing, and it was hard and scary to accept that most people are selfish and self-serving (or worse!). It took me forever to come back from that, and I eventually found good people, but it was hard. I’m not sure how much more pure paranoia I still have. I was reallly hurt when my former friend Ash disappeared. But in good news, I don’t think I blamed myself for, like, not knowing (via paranoia) that she’d dump me.

    My mother. I think that says it. She spent all our time together hinting at the abuse I suffered as a child. The last thing she said before I ran screaming was, “Your father never really disciplined anyone, did he?” I wasn’t even going to answer that, but she was like that all day. When I got home, my dad just looked at me and asked if he could do anything at all to help.

      1. Thanks so much for the support!! I just blew my diet to smithereens too just now, but I think I can regroup and refocus later. Nappytime!! 🙂

  4. I wasn’t aware of the proposed subtypes. That comorbidity between PPD and narcissistic PD sounds like a delight…

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