What is... psychology series

What Is… Reactance (Psychological Resistance)

graphic of a head with cogs turning inside

In this series, I dig a little deeper into the meaning of psychology-related terms.  This week’s term is reactance.

Reactance theory was first proposed by American psychologist Jack Brehm in 1966. Reactance is a type of resistance that arises in response to having one’s freedoms threatened, such as being told what to do (or not do). It comes into play with “free behaviours”, which are behaviours that people think they have a right to have control over, and motivates them to take action to preserve their freedom. The effects can be both behavioural and emotional, and may involve anger, hostility, and aggression.

While reactance was initially conceived as a temporary psychological state rather than a consistent trait, with further study, it appears to be a combination of both.

Factors influencing reactance

People are more prone to reactance if they’re stubborn, irritable or emotional, and are less prone if they’re if they’re agreeable and compliant. Whether people are from collectivist or individualist cultures can also make a difference. I’m a stubborn moose, so sign me up for Team Reactance.

Factors related to the particular freedom involved also make a difference. The more important the freedom and the greater the perceived threat, the more reactance there is likely to be. The use of freedom-threatening language tends to increase reactance, while choice-promoting language and the use of narratives decreases it.

Messaging along the lines of “not doing behaviour X will result in bad outcome Y” is likely to promote greater reactance than “doing behaviour X will result in good outcome Z.” Reactance is decreased when more than one option is provided and if there is a greater sense of empathy associated with the message.

Reverse psychology

Reverse psychology involves telling someone to do one thing with the aim of getting them to do the opposite. It takes advantage of reactance to what’s suggested. Younger children are most susceptible to reverse psychology, while adults are more likely to recognize it as an attempt at manipulation.

Reactance in context

Reactance can arise in a variety of different contexts. Refusal to wear a mask during the pandemic may stem from free behaviour beliefs related to what’s worn on the body.

Another context were this can come up is in response to anti-stigma campaigns. Mental illness stigma researcher Patrick Corrigan found that anti-stigma efforts that focused on the language that people should and should not use we actually not effective, and he suggested that reactance is likely a major contributor. There’s more on that in an older post, How Can We Fight Stigma Most Effectively?

Motivational interviewing, which is an approach often used in addictions counselling, takes reactance into account, emphasizing that it’s counterproductive for the counsellor to tell the client what they should do.

A stubborn moose

Autonomy is very important to me, and I don’t like being told what to do. One context where reactance was huge for me was when I was hospitalized. For my third hospitalization, I agreed to go into ER voluntarily. Once there, I was quickly committed under the Mental Health Act. I then immediately applied for a review panel to get myself out of hospital.

The next hospitalization was involuntary from the get-go, and I was seriously pissed off at the treatment team. When they proposed ECT, I told them they’d have to haul me there in restraints. I’m actually pro-ECT and it works well for me, but hell to the no was I going to agree to something they were telling me to do. Because I’m a very stubborn moose. Or mule, but mooses (moose?) are in a better position to do some trampling, so I’ll stick with that.

Do you have a tendency to experience reactance?

Sources:

On a side note, it’s never a good sign when a Wikipedia article includes a sentence in quotations that’s attributed to three separate sources all at the same time.

Psychology resources: What Is insights into psychology series and psychological tests

You can find the rest of the what is… series here, and a listing of psychological tests here.

20 thoughts on “What Is… Reactance (Psychological Resistance)”

  1. Hi, Moose! Bull here. As a Taurus the bull, I totally relate to ya. I can dig my hooves in and snort in a really scary way if someone tries to tell me what to do! πŸ˜€ And heaven help us all if I actually CHARGE TOWARD THEM. Things go straight to hell at that point. I’m like, “Really? Really? Are you talking to me?” [Snort, pawing the ground, blowing a bumblebee away, thinking about charging at the bad guy but not yet motivated enough to do so…]

    “Your mother was a bull!” the other person says.

    “Oh no, you didn’t!” I yell. CHARGE. The rest is history. Impaled by the bull.

    Fabulous blog post!!

  2. Do you have a tendency to experience reactance? Yes. I think it’s part and parcel of Borderline Personality Disorder. I have that, by association, I’m told. I’ve always been resistant to someone ‘telling me what to do’, if it were overt or subliminal. I resented the hell out of my various bosses over the years, even the ones I got along well with.

  3. Lol. The new T we recently tried gave us an ultimatum in the second meeting: sign a release for me to talk to your current therapist (T-2), or I will not see you again.

    This did not meet our need for Autonomy and choice. We felt very confused and frustrated. We declined to sign it, and she still agreed to see us again. We canceled that appointment because of the ultimatum and that it was hollow, and won’t go back.

    Go, Mooses!

  4. According to my parents, I am extremely willful and stubborn, which I find really amusing.

    I value my personal autonomy highly and don’t like being ordered around, especially by people I don’t like or respect. If I obey, it’s really out of fear or a desire to avoid negative reactions.

    If I like and respect someone, however, then I’m pretty “compliant”, even if I might huff and puff a bit.

  5. I guess you can sign me up to be on your team Ashley – team reactance! I’m really not liking this having to scan bar codes if we want to have a drink or food in our local bar, then having to pay by card only! I’m seeing all this as a sign of control.

    1. That seems rather strange for a local bar. At the grocery store, though, I view self-checkout as a sign of freedom because it means I don’t have to deal with an actual person πŸ˜‰

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