What is… Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

In this series, I dig a little deeper into the meaning of psychology-related terms.

This week’s term: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

In 1943 psychologist Abraham Maslow proposed of model of human motivation that was based on a hierarchy of different levels of needs.  He is considered to be the founder of the humanistic psychology approach, and took an optimistic view of human potential rather than focusing on pathology.

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is represented as a pyramid with five levels of human needs.  Each level of need should be satisfied (or mostly satisfied) before moving up to the next, culminating in self-actualization.  While Freud argued that human drives were not available consciously, Maslow believed that people were well aware of these motives as they sought to move ahead in their lives.

Here is a visual representation of the hierarchy of needs:

The first four levels of need are known as deficiency needs, or d-needs, since when they are not met it creates conditions of deprivation.  The top level is growth or being needs, also known as b-needs.  These needs come from a wish for personal growth.  At this point, an individual experiences what Maslow called metamotivation as they seek to continually better themselves.

The base level of the pyramid involves physiological needs, the basic needs for survival like food and water.

The next level is safety.  The particular safety needs that predominate will depend on an individual’s environment, but examples include physical safety, safety of loved ones, and job and financial security.

Next is love and belonging, including family, friendships, and intimacy.  Maslow considered group acceptance to be important; this could involve small or larger groups.  Depending on the pressures of the peer group, this level may start to take priority over lower levels of need.

The next level is esteem, including self-respect and being valued and respected by others.  Maslow identified two types of self-esteem; “lower” self-esteem is fuelled by the respect of others, whereas “higher” self-esteem is driven by self-respect.

At the top of the pyramid is the need for self-actualization.  Simply Psychology offers the following quote from Maslow regarding self-actualization:

“It refers to the person’s desire for self-fulfillment, namely, to the tendency for him to become actualized in what he is potentially.

The specific form that these needs will take will of course vary greatly from person to person. In one individual it may take the form of the desire to be an ideal mother, in another it may be expressed athletically, and in still another it may be expressed in painting pictures or in inventions.”

The ability to meet different needs will vary over time, and life events can cause upwards or downwards movement in the level of needs.  This means there isn’t a simple one-way journey up the pyramid.

Maslow identified fifteen characteristics of a self-actualized person, including that ability to tolerate uncertainty, self-acceptance, high levels of creativity, strong moral/ethical standards, and concern for human welfare.

Later modifications were made to the model, including cognitive and aesthetic needs inserted below self-actualization, and transcendence added above self-actualization.  According to Wikipedia, Maslow described transcendence as “the very highest and most inclusive or holistic levels of human consciousness, behaving and relating, as ends rather than means, to oneself, to significant others, to human beings in general, to other species, to nature, and to the cosmos.”

While various scholars have contested the validity of the hierarchy of needs, it continues to be widely used; I first learned of it when I was in nursing school.  I think part of the appeal is that intuitively it feels about right.  Perhaps in a very literal sense it’s not always accurate, but I think it still has a lot to offer in understanding human behaviour.

I suspect that mental illness can affect our prioritization of needs in multiple ways.  I wonder if depression may shift focus to lower level needs, while mania may artificially shift attention to higher level needs.  Perhaps in PTSD people can get stuck trying to meet safety needs.  And maybe in borderline personality disorder people have an impaired ability to meet love/belonging and esteem needs.  It’s an interesting way of looking at the bigger picture of mental illness, even though it doesn’t capture the subtleties.

Were you already familiar with the hierarchy of needs?  What are your thoughts?

You can find the rest of my What Is series here.

Sources:

Have you checked out my book Psych Meds Made Simple?  It’s available on Amazon as an ebook or paperback.

Share this:
Sponsored Links

21 thoughts on “What is… Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

  1. Barb says:

    When you first presented the hierarchy I thought, I’m familiar with this! Then I realized I was thinking of the food pyramid lol! But I actually had heard of this before. I like your theories about how Maslow’s hierarchy relates to mental illness.

  2. Luftmentsch says:

    I was aware of this beforehand. It’s useful. I actually have one of Maslow’s books that I bought cheap second-hand, although I haven’t read it yet.

    My difficulty with it is that, because I’m a thirty-five year old virgin, technically I’m not fully meeting even my basic physiological needs. On one level that seems right to me, and makes me feel justified in wanting to find a partner/spouse so much. But at the same time, it seems wrong to think that I can’t go up the pyramid at all because of being stuck at the bottom, and I’ve never been sure if that’s a correct reading of the pyramid. Because I definitely do achieve things (partially or completely) higher up the pyramid, including some things at the very top. Also, saying that sex is a basic need like food or water seems wrong to me. It is a basic need, but one can go without sex for very long periods; one can’t go without food and water for more than a few days.

    • ashleyleia says:

      My understanding was that Maslow’s original conceptualization was that lower needs must be met before moving up, he became more flexible on that as the theory evolved.
      I agree with you regarding sex. While it’s certainly a primal physiological drive, I don’t see it as necessary for higher level functioning.

  3. Meg says:

    This is very interesting. Some of the things on there are really weird. Excretion? I mean, you go into the bathroom and come out, right? Hmm… I wonder what security of morality is? Chastity belts? Breathing, though… that’s a good one!

    I feel sad for people whose basic needs aren’t met! 🙁

  4. BeckiesMentalMess.wordpress.com says:

    I have heard of the Maslow Hierarchy once before, actually when I was first placed in my mental health facility, but it was never truly discussed for whatever reason, they never explained.
    I find this rather interesting. By examining the pyramid, I’m actually trying to see where my strengths are. I’m always trying to better myself, but I have such doubt over certain things and situations.
    As far as human contact for me goes… This is the most interactive I am with people. Here, right here. I feel comfort and security. Elsewhere, I feel uptight most of the time.
    Relationships are fairly non-existent because I believe I created that for my own protection.
    To be honest, I don’t see myself as that complex, but when I visualize these types of formats (If you will) – I find myself not understanding my self at all. Or find it to be more complicated.
    Does that make a bit of rational sense to you?

  5. Melanie B Cee says:

    Strangely (for this is a period of coincidences between my blogging ‘world’ and my real life) I was discussing this pyramid with my therapist last month at our visit. I know my self esteem was badly damaged by my childhood trauma and not improved by my mother or society in general as a youth and young adult, so having self respect has been problematical. It explains A LOT though. For me it’s been illuminating learning of this pyramid.

  6. whyareallthegoodusernamesgone says:

    I LOVE Maslow’s Hierarchy – we always talked about it a lot in my education/teaching degree – specifically in regards to the ridiculous expectation of children coming to school to learn (which is arguably a function of or means to self-actualisation), when they hadn’t eaten, slept, were sick, had dealt with arguing or abusive parents, etc etc.
    I think it’s also interesting to note that an individual can climb their way up the pyramid (i.e. you can have creativity and lack prejudice while still having no to poor self-esteem), but it’s a lot more arduous, and draining, and makes it difficult to ascertain other elements of self-actualisation or esteem, such as problem-solving and achievement.

  7. The Inquisitive Mind says:

    This is a great post summarizing Maslow’s theory of hierarchical needs! I think this strongly ties into the field of positive psychology today, where health is approached with more of a mentality of making people thrive as opposed to simply not having diseases. I just wrote on this in my own blog, and I am trying to tie it back into some theories that are being presented today. It is all with the intent to make people feel more positive about life! Feel free to check out my blog and leave any contributions that you would like. Keep up the good work!

Leave a Reply