What is… Melancholic Depression

Depression with melancholic features: a cluster of depressive symptoms including anhedonia and psychomotor retardation

In this series, I dig a little deeper into the meaning of psychological terms. This week’s term is melancholic depression, also known as depression with melancholic features.

The word melancholia comes from the Greek for black bile, part of the ancient four humours medical belief system. In the 5th century BCE, Hippocrates first identified melancholia as a disease with various mental and physical symptoms. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the idea of a melancholic temperament became fashionable in English art and literature.

Past names for depression with melancholic features include endogenous (vs. reactive) depression and melancholia.


In the DSM-5, the melancholic features specifier can be used to describe a major depressive episode (in major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder) with a certain cluster of symptoms. That symptom cluster includes:

  1. anhedonia (near-total inability to feel pleasure)
  2. lack of positive reaction to normally pleasurable things
  3. a quality of mood that’s distinct from grief/loss, i.e. it subjectively feels different
  4. early morning awakening
  5. psychomotor retardation (slowed movement and thinking) or agitation
  6. significant loss of appetite
  7. symptoms that are worse in the morning
  8. excessive/inappropriate guilt

Either symptom #1 or 2 must be present, in addition to at least 3 symptoms from #3-8. Symptom #5 (psychomotor changes) is nearly always present. The full criteria for a major depressive episode must be met, including the presence of symptoms almost all day, almost every day, for at least 2 weeks, with clinically significant distress or impairment in social and occupational functioning.

While many people experiencing a major depressive episode experience some of these symptoms, this particular symptom cluster occurring together is what constitutes melancholic features. There are many different potential combinations of symptoms in a major depressive episode, and not everyone who’s having a major depressive episode has a features specifier of any kind.

There’s some question as to whether melancholic depression represents a distinct illness from depression with atypical features, which involves a cluster of symptoms like increased sleep and appetite, mood reactivity to pleasurable stimuli, and leaden paralysis. At this point, though, the DSM’s categorical system treats them as different features of the same illness.

The biology of melancholia

There do appear to be differences in how melancholic depression affects the brain, including changes that can be seen on electroencephalogram (EEG) and MRI across groups of patients with melancholic vs. non-melancholic depression.

Melancholic depression appears to have a strong biological component, including a genetic element. There appear to be disruptions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that connects the brain and the adrenal glands, as well as elevated inflammation.

Despite these elements that researchers have observed across groups of patients, science hasn’t yet come up with a biological feature that’s a definite diagnostic marker.

Characteristics of melancholic depression

People with melancholic features tend to have relatively normal childhoods, and when well, they tend not to have significant problems with relationships and work functioning. The depression is more likely to be identified as an imposed illness rather than a logical reaction to life stressors.

Episodes can occur with no apparent situational triggers, and they tend to be more severe than one might expect given the situational circumstances. Melancholic episodes can also occur in response to minor, non-severe stressors, and researchers from Queen’s University have suggested that melancholic depression may be especially sensitive to stress. This would fit with the idea of inflammation playing some role in this particular form of depression.

The Lundby Study, a longitudinal community-based study in Sweden, showed that people whose first depressive episode had melancholic features were at a greater risk for recurrence of their depression compared to people with a non-melancholic first depressive episode.

Cognitive dysfunction

Melancholic features have been associated with greater cognitive dysfunction than non-melancholic depression, including poorer processing speed, problem-solving, and visual memory. Psychotic features are also more common in this form of depression.

Reward system

Researchers have observed deficits in reward-based learning tasks, meaning people are less likely to develop behaviours geared towards maximizing rewards. This may be related to dysfunction in dopamine signalling in the brain’s reward areas.

Response to treatment

Melancholic depression tends to respond better to biological treatments like antidepressants and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) than it does to psychotherapy, and it’s less responsive to placebo than other forms of depression.

Some research has shown an improved response to antidepressants that target multiple neurotransmitter systems rather than just serotonin, although there have been contradictory findings. In keeping with this, some studies have suggested that tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) may be the most effective. It can sometimes be helpful to add other medications to augment antidepressants, including atypical antipsychotics or psychostimulants (e.g. Ritalin, Dexedrine).

Getting personal

My own symptom pattern tends toward melancholic features, although not always. The anhedonia and psychomotor retardation are pretty prominent. I get the early morning awakening, decreased appetite, and guilt, but they’re usually kept under control when I’m well-medicated. I’ve never had atypical features to my depression, and when my sleep and appetite are affected, they’re always decreased, not increased.

If you have a depressive illness, what is your pattern of symptoms like?


book cover: Managing the Depression Puzzle, 2nd Edition, by Ashley L. Peterson

Managing the Depression Puzzle takes a holistic look at the different potential pieces that might fit into your unique depression puzzle.

It’s available on Amazon and Google Play.

So you've just been diagnosed with... [ mental illness]

The So You’ve Just Been Diagnosed with… [a Mental Disorder] page brings together information, advice, and resources from people who’ve been there. New input is always welcome!

Ashley L. Peterson headshot

Ashley L. Peterson


Ashley is a former mental health nurse and pharmacist and the author of four books.

15 thoughts on “What is… Melancholic Depression”

  1. Thanks for the post. To me, what this post underscores is that some or most depression is a state where the brain is in a state of chemical disruption. This is definitely different from “feeling sad” which is how most people not familiar with mental illness may view depression.

  2. I found this very interesting, especially the biological connection. That melancholic depression doesn’t respond well to placebos is very interesting. And while I like to be part of an interesting group, I don’t quite fit here.

    Anhedonia, yes, along with a lack of emotional responses to nearly anything. I am good at faking it. I sleep poorly as opposed to early morning awakening. Agitation as opposed to retardation, sugar cravings, suicidal ideation, and a sense of total worthlessness.

    Official, major depressive disorder. My psychiatrist treats it with meds that hold it mostly at bay somewhat, but we mostly focus on the cPTSD and ED recovery.

  3. Wow I’m really grateful to have learned this, I haven’t heard of it before but it makes sense. I think I lean on the melancholic side…it would explain why SRI’s didn’t work and ADHD meds (stimulants) are changing my life more than just for my ADHD symptoms.

  4. I’ve been receiving professional mental health care for more than 25 years and none of those professionals has ever mentioned melancholy or melancholia, but that description definitely resonates with me. Thanks, again, for your helpful information!

  5. If you have a depressive illness, what is your pattern of symptoms like?

    They label my particular depression with different things (or they have). It’s persistent, long term, chronic or clinical depression. I have SAD in the fall winter months too, with my mood overall getting worse, I don’t want to do anything, even less than when it’s sunnier outside and warmer. They’ve called it dysthymia, although personally I think my depression is not mild. I have suicidal ideations often. I don’t handle stress or changes well at all, which is a trait of both depression and my recently diagnosed ‘main’ problem which is BPD. All I know is that one day when I was a teenager I woke up and everything was a lot grayer than before. My mood hasn’t been upbeat ever since either. I’ve been in treatment on and off since I was 25, and I’m 61 now. I take medication to help with the ‘everything is crap’ feelings and anxiety; but still. Everything is pretty much crap.

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