In this series, I dig a little deeper into the meaning of psychology-related terms. This week’s term is cognitive bias.
Do you think you’re biased? Well, your brain certainly is. A cognitive bias is a type of shortcut your brain takes to make tasks easier and more automatic. Sometimes that’s helpful, but often it’s not, especially when we’re unaware of it.
Types of Cognitive Biases
We’re naturally inclined to go for the “sure thing” rather than something with an uncertain outcome; this is true even when the result would be better if the uncertain outcome occurred. This is essentially “better the devil you know than the devil you don’t.”
This involves attributing human characteristics to non-human objects, e.g. my belief that my guinea pigs love me.
The strength of a logical argument is evaluated based on the subjective believability of the conclusion rather than on the strength of the arguments that led to the conclusion. If I believe the earth is flat, I’m more likely to believe a logically weak argument about the movement of the moon that’s consistent with the notion of the earth being flat than I am to believe a strong argument that suggests the moon moves in a way that demonstrates the earth isn’t flat.
Ben Franklin effect
If someone has previously done you a favour, they’re more likely to do you another favour in the future than if you had originally done the favour for them. So, if you’re trying to get someone to view you more positively, ask them to do you a small favour.
Bias blind spot
We tend to believe that we are less biased than other people are, regardless of our own actual level of bias. This means that we believe that our own beliefs are more based in facts and objective reality while we view other people’s beliefs as influenced more by prejudice.
We tend to both seek out, believe, and focus on information that confirms what we already believe, and ignore information that goes against our beliefs.
Curse of knowledge
This is the assumption that other people have the same level of background knowledge as you do; I tend to get caught up in this, so I ‘ve never been very good dealing with students in my work as a nurse because I always assume they should have more knowledge than they actually do.
The Dunning-Kruger effect is a type of cognitive bias that causes people who know the least about a subject to feel confident that they have greater knowledge or competence than they actually do. This occurs when people lack the basic knowledge and meta-awareness to recognize just how much they don’t know.
Receiving the same information is evaluated differently depending on how it’s framed. If a news outlet is presenting an accurate piece of information in the context of other information that is negative, it will be evaluated differently than if it was framed within the context of positive information.
This is the sort of belief that because you’ve had half an hour of losing at a particular slot machine, the machine is due to pay out imminently. You can also see this with a simple coin toss; if you toss a coin and get ten straight heads, the gambler’s fallacy would tell you the next toss is more likely to be tails. However, the coin doesn’t remember previous toss results; the odds stay 50/50 for each toss regardless of previous results.
An outcome seems like it should have been obviously predictable after it’s already happened. It’s very hard to un-know what you’ve learned in the interim. It can be a problem if you apply your superpowers of hindsight with the expectation that you can solve problems to come in the future.
Hyperbolic discounting is the preference for a smaller short-term gain over a larger but delayed gain. For example, given the choice, people are more likely to choose being given $100 a month for a year over bring given $1500 at the end of the year, even though waiting would mean an extra $300.
Illusory truth effect
The illusory truth effect means that we’re more likely to believe information the more we’re exposed to it, even if the information itself is false. The effect of familiarity can override rationality, and this is often exploited by political campaigns.
Just world fallacy
We’re naturally inclined to think that good things happen to good people who behave properly, and bad things happen to bad people who do the wrong thing. The just world fallacy can feed into victim-blaming, as people don’t want to believe the bad things happen to people who have properly because that would mean they’re at risk.
Mere ownership effect
We tend to like things more simply because we own them, making us reluctant to give things up once we have them. This plays a role in the psychology of advertising and free trial period offers.
We’re more likely to notice and remember things that are negative compared to things that are positive. This had a survival function back in the caveman days, because it was important to remember where the poisonous plants and the tigers’ den were. Even though that survival function is far less necessary now, it’s hardwired into our brains.
Expecting a certain outcome causes the observer to unconsciously do things to influence the outcome. Clinical research trials are often designed to be double-blinded to account for this. This means that the neither the researchers dealing directly with the study participants nor the participants themselves know whether a given participant is receiving the treatment intervention or placebo.
Pluralistic ignorance occurs when members of a group go along with something they don’t agree with because they perceive it to be the group norm, even though it’s actually not. For example, if a professor gives a lecture that didn’t make any sense, students may refrain from asking questions because they assume everyone else understands, and they don’t want to be the one person that looks like an idiot. In the meantime, everyone else is thinking the exact same thing, so the expected group norm (understanding the lecture) isn’t the norm at all.
Post-purchase rationalization, also known as the choice-supportive bias, means that even if you spent far too much money on something, you’ll likely try to convince yourself afterwards that it was totally worth it. This may occur by enhancing its attributes, minimizing its flaws, or dismissing the validity of other options.
If something big and significant happens, we tend to expect there to be a big and significant reason behind it, even if the actual explanation is simple or totally random. This can help to fuel conspiracy theories, where an elaborate conspiracy may feel like it’s more appropriate than a simple explanation.
If someone you don’t like makes a suggestion, you’ll tend to automatically assume it’s a bad suggestion, regardless of the merit of the suggestion itself. This can occur on an individual level or on a group level, such as a policy proposal from a political party you don’t support.
Rhyme as reason effect
This seems utterly bizarre, but Wikipedia gives this example from O.J. Simpson’s trial: “If the gloves don’t fit, then you must acquit.”
Sunk cost fallacy
This is the tendency to think that you should stick with something because you’ve already put a lot of time/effort/money in. For example, let’s say you bought $20,000 worth of stock, and that stock has dropped to $8,000 in value. Rather than taking your $8K and getting out of that disaster while you can, the sunk cost fallacy makes you likely to hang onto that stock as it keeps on dropping.
Even if you’re only hungry enough to need a small plate of food, if given a large plate, you’ll judge that full plate as being the appropriate amount.
There are many, many more examples of cognitive biases. Some of them have a greater degree of voluntariness, such as the ostrich effect (i.e. sticking one’s head in the sand to ignore something bad happening). Others we likely wouldn’t realize if they weren’t pointed out to us. Regardless, the ways that we perceive the world around us are often not an objectively accurate representation.
Source: Wikipedia: List of cognitive biases
The Psychology Corner page includes an index of the terms that have been covered in the What Is… (Insights into Psychology) series, as well as a collection of scientifically validated psychological tests.