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Should People in Mental Health Crisis Be Handcuffed?

Should police be routinely handcuffing people in mental health crisis? - image of a head, psy symbol, and handcuffs

Mental illness is a health issue, not a criminal one, but the police role in mental health crises can end up blurring that line. In some places, people struggling with their mental health are routinely handcuffed to be taken to hospital by police. How is that appropriate? It seems like a practice that accomplishes little except reinforcing stigma.

I’ve written in other posts about the possibility of defunding the police and shifting mental health crisis response over to the health care system, but this post will focus on the practice of handcuffing.

Getting someone to hospital

When I arrived for my shift the other night at the concurrent disorders (mental health and addictions) transitional program where I work, my colleagues informed me that one of the patients was being sent to hospital, as she was having intense, active suicidal ideation. Shortly after I arrived, paramedics and police showed up, and that’s when things began to go downhill.

The paramedics seemed reluctant to transport her to hospital, which is a whole other story. Regardless, it was generally agreed that, given the severity of her suicidal thinking, it wasn’t appropriate for her to go to hospital on a voluntary basis. A section of the provincial Mental Health Act allows police to take someone to hospital involuntarily if they’re clearly mentally unwell and posing a risk to self or others. The police and paramedics decided that the patient would be taken to hospital in the back of a police car.


As I was trying to explain to the patient what was happening and why, she was clearly disturbed. She asked fearfully “will I have to go in handcuffs?” My automatic response was “absolutely not”. I was then informed that it’s standard procedure for the police force in that city to handcuff people being transported to hospital under the Mental Health Act.

Jaw. Drop. In the city where I’ve worked for most of my career, police don’t transport mental health patients to hospital; ambulances do. A police officer may ride along in the ambulance followed by their partner in the police car if needed. The only times I’ve seen people handcuffed was when they were extremely agitated. I’ve been apprehended by police under the Mental Health Act on one occasion, and at that time I was taken by ambulance with a police officer accompanying, with no mention of handcuffs. I can’t even imagine how it would have felt to be handcuffed and shoved in the back of a police car.

Mental illness is not a crime

In a society with so much stigma against mental illness, the system needs to try harder and do more to respect people’s dignity. To treat mentally ill people in crisis like criminals is a huge step backwards. It disgusts me that police would consider it appropriate to routinely handcuff people who are in extreme mental distress. If the poor mentally ill person wasn’t traumatized before, they sure as hell are now.

Had I been that patient who was basically told that it was a special exception and privilege not to be handcuffed, I would never again disclose to care providers when I was having thoughts of suicide. If police and handcuffs are the consequences of disclosing suicidal thinking, how does that motivate anyone to share that kind of information? It’s hard enough to get treatment for those with mental illness; to have that kind of disincentive is the sort of thing that can end up costing people their lives.

When society treats people with mental illness as criminals, we all lose. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police clearly has a lot of work to do. This sort of routine practice is abhorrent and needs to stop.

Response to this post

After creating a pin on Pinterest related to this post, I got a comment in response to the question of whether police should be routinely handcuffing people in mental health crisis. The commenter wrote:

Yes. It’s for their safety as much as the officer’s. The officer has the right to go home to their family and be as safe as possible.

Beyond my initial WTF reaction, there were a few layers to unpack in that comment.

That’s stigma

First off, there the across-the-board “yes”. Not “yes if…” or “yes, but only…”; just “yes”, full stop. The police attend a lot of mental health-related calls, and that would be a whole lot of handcuffing. That unqualified yes suggests that this should be a routine practice because crazy people are routinely scary-crazy.

Next we move on to “it’s for their safety as much as the officer’s.” It’s rather patronizing to suggest that impositions on basic freedoms are for the scary-crazy person’s own good. If we look through a trauma-informed lens, handcuffing is likely to create harm. But stigma doesn’t see that; stigma sees “us” and scary-crazy “them”, and there’s a massive border wall in between preventing any empathy from dribbling through.

“The officer has the right to go home to their family.” How would a mentally ill person get in the way of this? By killing or maiming them? If anyone’s going to be dying in a cop vs. scary-crazy person encounter, what do you think are the chances it’s going to be the scary-crazy person who ma be wanting to die? Isn’t that what we scary-crazy folks do?

“The officer has the right to… be as safe as possible.” How about the right of the mentally ill person to be as safe as possible? Being handcuffed without having committed a crime doesn’t sound all that safe to me. And it doesn’t seem like that much a leap to extend that to justifying police brutality by saying the police had a right to feel safe, so why not harm/kill anyone who’s scary for any reason, including the colour of their skin?

How to respond?

My approach online has generally been to not engage with people who appear to be ignorant by choice. This comment, though, didn’t strike me as intentional ignorance. I wouldn’t be surprised if she has a partner in law enforcement whom she worries about.

My response:

Any other medical condition you’d like to see people handcuffed for? Heart attacks, perhaps? Or is it just mental illness? In that case, there’s a name for that: stigma.

I can’t think of any other type of health condition where people are liable to be handcuffed without having committed a crime or been violent. But when stigma’s in the picture, mental illness crisis looks less like a medical emergency and more like a behavioural problem.

The original commenter didn’t reply to my comment, which is fine. I do hope, though, that it made her think critically, even just for a minute, about her point of view.

The bigger picture

The dangerousness stereotype associated with mental illness is quite deeply ingrained in our society. This person’s comment clearly buys into that stereotype. Yet most people who hold this belief don’t recognize what it is; they see it as fact rather than stigma.

That’s what’s so insidious about stigma. For people who don’t know better, those stereotypes seem reasonable. It then becomes easy to rationalize acting on the assumption that they’re valid.

And as with any other kind of social privilege, people with good mental health can’t see the problem when they look through their lens. To really see stigma, you need to look through our lens, the crazy-scary person lens.

That’s why we need to keep talking, keep telling our stories, and call out stigma when it feels safe and productive to do so. Then instead of seeing stereotypes, more people might actually see us.

Book cover: A Brief History of Stigma by Ashley L. Peterson

My latest book, A Brief History of Stigma, looks at the nature of stigma, the contexts in which it occurs, and how to challenge it most effectively.

You can find it on Amazon and Google Play.

Stop the stigma: Resources to challenge mental illness stigma

You can find more on mental illness stigma on the Stop the Stigma page.

57 thoughts on “Should People in Mental Health Crisis Be Handcuffed?”

  1. I don’t like the idea at all. I’ve worked in various facilities and that’s a terrible idea. It can trigger memories and make things a LOT worse, among other issues. There are ways to physically manage people if needed without handcuffs.

    1. I agree. I’m not against the use of restraints or force when it’s absolutely necessary, but in most situations there are other strategies that are more effective and less traumatizing.

    1. I would probably do that if I thought the program I work for would support me, but I know they wouldn’t, so I think it would be even less likely to accomplish anything.

  2. That is probably the worse thing I have ever heard of doing to a mentally unstable (Suicidal) person. I feel so bad for that poor person that had cuffs placed on them. That probably only made the situation worse for that person… and they will always be reminded of this ordeal when they encounter the police again. Instant trigger!

  3. Great post! I definitely agree that being cuffed can be traumatic, which could result in a person not disclosing in the future, which increases risks for all involved. I live in Virginia, USA and usually an ambulance transports, from my understanding. With that being said, I do believe there are cases where restraining someone is for the best to protect the safety of themselves and others. As a clinician, I am taught to de-escalate and only use restraint techniques when all else fails (I’m not authorized to handcuff, obviously). So maybe the police there need to be trained in some basic mental health de-escalation skills to use before resulting to cuffing? This is a good topic.

    1. De-escalation techniques are definitely important. I think what concerned me was that it would be routine practice to handcuff someone who was a risk of harm to no one but themself and wasn’t agitated. I’ve seen restraint and force used very effectively when de-escalation failed and it was the only safe option, but things like that should never become a routine go-to. Thanks for commenting.

  4. “If police and handcuffs are the consequences of disclosing suicidal thinking, why would anyone be motivated to share that information? ” Exactly.

  5. Omg this is terrible. Nobody who is in crisis should be handcuffed unless they have committed a crime. I had an issue with an ambulance taking my Dad somewhere years ago because he was detoxing and it was a nightmare. I hate that they treat people this way 🙁

  6. Wow, that is rough. I do know sometimes if a mental patient is extremely aggressive or immensely self-injurious that they use restraints, and I do understand why, even though I don’t like it, but handcuffs? That seems really overboard unless she was hurting someone.

    1. Yeah, I get the use of restraints, handcuffs, and force when absolutely necessary, but there’s no need for any of them to be routine practice.

  7. This was one of the biggest reasons I never wanted to disclose my suicidal ideation- fear of being dragged off in handcuffs. The fear of this escalated with my level of unwellness, then paranoia sets in and I start planning how I can defend myself against the police if they try anything. So essentially this fear alone turns me from a non violent risk only to myself into a risk to others…
    The system/s need so much work.

  8. I was confronted by the ‘non voluntary’ part of our Mental Healthcare Act too. It’s the same as yours, and because there is a dire shortage of ambulances, the police are all that is available. I know that when I’m suicidal, I’m super paranoid too… And the thought of going in a police van was horrid, let alone my children seeing me being ‘arrested’ for being ill.

  9. How dare they? If the only person your patient was a risk to was herself what possible reason could they have for detaining her for being ill?

    There is so much fear surrounding dual diagnosis that it is perhaps unsurprising that they would be nervous but to openly discriminate in such a way is totally wrong.

    1. I don’t take issue with her being taken to hospital involuntarily, because she was feeling quite actively suicidal, but there was no reason for any talk of handcuffs.

  10. This is really rough. You are so right. They aren’t criminals. Having a mental illness is hard enough and being handcuffed will only make it look like they are criminals or something. I also don’t like that idea. I’m glad you are adressing this isue and so we can both end the stigma of mental health

  11. I once after a call.to a helpine had 2 police cars and a van turn up for jusy me in a suicidal crisis…..i was marched through a and e with a police officer on each arm. When i ran after being terrified i was chased – restrained and tokd i calm down or be taken to a police cell. I then had the big bag of tablets id had dumped on the desk in front of everyone while the whole situation was told to.the person behind the desk in a loud manner. It was horrific and NOT how mental.health should be treated.

  12. It’s a safety and liability issue and handcuffs are supposed to protect both police officer and “arrested person”. FD ambulances and paramedics will not normally transport an uninjured suicidal person for involuntary evaluation, generally because of ambulance shortages. No one else wants do take this responsibility because of the potential dangers involved with people “in crisis”, so it is pushed onto police. Police handcuff all arrested persons as policy, and remember that their primary function is to arrest and transport criminals. Blame the idiots who want to save a few dollars by getting the police to do a job that should be carried out by mental health professionals.

    1. Except people who are mentally ill and need to go to hospital aren’t under arrest. Ambulance shortages aren’t an excuse to treat mentally ill people like criminals.

      1. I agree with you but technically they are under arrest in my state. Ambulances would be wonderful but fire Dept staff where I am are told to let police transport to hospital. Ideally, a person can be taken to an evaluation center by a relative. The present situation has mainly come to pass by law suits from family members who have sued authorities after a suicide, suicidal people getting violent and police being expected to cover for trained mental health professionals

  13. this is absolutely outrageous! from someone that suffers from mental illness I can tell you now this would make me so much worse! when I went through a similar situation (but from home) the paramedics came out then my CPN nurse and I was transferred to the hospital in the ambulance and there was no involvement from the police. handcuffs are a last resort, unless the patient is attacking staff or anyone ese around them then handcuffs are not needed at all! its absolutely vile that people with mental illness have their dignity stripped away from them like they don’t matter! in my opinion mental illness is just as serious as cancer, they are both deadly and are both illnesses but mental health has never been made a priority.

  14. Absolutely disgusting practice, to be ill is not a crime so what difference does it make if the illness is mental. If the patient was aggressive then handcuffs may be justified as a last resort. It seems you would’ve atleast been of some comfort to the poor girl glad to see you’ve commented she was ok.

  15. It happens in America too. Happened to me 6 weeks before I graduated college. Suicidal ideation, not even attempt, and the cops get called. No one explains anything to me, just told me they’re taking me “someplace safe”. They cuffed me, even though I was completely compliant. Got stuck in a psych center for 4 days. It was traumatic. I’m never going back there again.

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