In this series, I dig a little deeper into the meaning of psychology-related terms. This week’s term is attention.
We are constantly bombarded with a steady stream of stimuli, both internal and external. Attention is the process by which we narrow our focus to certain pieces of information while excluding others.
Visual attention appears to consist of two different processes: a once-over of the entire visual field that is processed all at the same time, and then a second stage focused on a specific area, with processing that occurs serially (one bit at a time). It’is based on location, features (e.g. motion, colour), and objects.
Attentional control is the process of selecting what we do or do not want to pay attention to. This involves maintaining alertness/awareness, orientation to sensory stimuli, and executive control. An obvious example of low attentional control is ADHD, but it can also occur in autism, anxiety disorders, depression, PTSD, and schizophrenia.
Attentional shifts involve reallocating mental resources in order to more efficiently process a particular stimulus. Task switching requires a corresponding attentional shift. These shifts can occur either voluntarily or automatically.
While we might think that we can and should multitask, we’re actually not very good at it. There’s only so much attention to go around, so we end up task switching rather than being able to attend to multiple tasks at the same time, and this requires more mental resources than if we focused on one task at a time.
Change blindness occurs when we’re attentive to something, lose attention briefly, and then return to it without noticing major changes that have happened during our brief lapse. One example of this is in an experiment in which someone is speaking to an actor, they’re distracted by another stimulus, and when they return focus they don’t realize that the initial actor was replaced by another actor. The same phenomenon explains why most people don’t notice editing errors in movies. It may also be responsible for some traffic accidents.
Psychologist Donald Broadbent came up with a filter model of selective attention. Information enters sensory memory, and only relevant information is moved on to working memory. A problem with this model, though, was that it didn’t explain why we would quickly attend to hearing our name, even if it wasn’t from the source of stimuli that we were focusing on. A later model proposed an attenuation effect, so that stimuli not actively being attended to would be weakened but not filtered out entirely. Another model suggested thresholds for attention based on meaning.
The cocktail party effect is an example of selective attention for auditory stimuli. In a crowded room, we may not notice the chatter in the background until we hear our name being mentioned.
Have a look at this short video:
Did your selective attention keep you from noticing the unusual stimulus?
My own experience
An interesting experience I had relevant to attention was when my last boyfriend was in intensive care following a medication overdose and subsequent aspiration of what the hospital gave him to try to counteract the overdose. He was on a ventilator, and unconscious. The nurses said that when I wasn’t there, he’d be resistant and even combative, but when I was there, he was much more cooperative. I rarely called him by his name, because we always used pet names with each other. We had been together for 1 1/2 years at that point, so I wasn’t sure if that was long enough for the pet name to have deeply sunk in or if it was my voice he was recognizing even when unconscious, but the nurses were very sure that he knew when I was there.
In my own experience, depression has definitely had a negative effect on my ability to sustain attention and to task switch efficiently. One of my meds is a stimulant (Dexedrine), which I take more for psychomotor retardation, but I’ve noticed only a moderate effect on my attention.
Is attention something that you struggle with?