The mental status exam (MSE) is a framework for assessment that’s used widely in the field of psychiatry. Rather than being a one-time assessment, it is used on an ongoing basis to capture how a patient is doing on any given encounter (and I use the term patient to describe the role and not the person as a whole). This is what it covers:
Appearance, attitude, and behaviour:
This isn’t supposed to be about passing judgment; instead, the purpose is to identify clues that could potentially give information about someone’s mental health.
- Apparent vs stated (i.e. actual) age: When I’m depressed, I tend to appear older than my stated age. While it sounds odd, “stated age” is just the usual terminology and isn’t intended to imply that someone is lying about their age.
- Grooming: If someone is depressed or struggling with negative symptoms of schizophrenia their hygiene may be poor, while someone who’s manic may be wearing heavy makeup and revealing clothing. This is most useful when the clinician knows the patient’s baseline for comparison, or can refer back to MSEs documented in the past. Another factor is whether the person is dressed appropriately for the weather. For example, if someone is dressed for a polar expedition on the hottest day of the summer, that may be an indicator of a psychotic illness.
- Eye contact: This is another area where it’s useful to be aware of the patient’s baseline as well as relevant cultural norms. When I’m very depressed, I make minimal eye contact.
- Cooperation with interviewer: Someone may be “guarded” (reluctant to reveal information) due to paranoia, or rapport may be “tenuous” (weak) because the interviewer is a pompous jerk, and this can mean the information gathered through the interview isn’t necessarily reliable and therefore the assessment may not accurately capture the entire clinical picture.
- Motor behaviour: There are a variety of ways in which mental illness can affect people’s physical activity. For example, mania may speed up people’s movements (psychomotor agitation), while depression may slow it down (psychomotor retardation). Catatonia refers to extreme disruptions in motor behaviour.
- Speech: This includes rate, rhythm and volume. If someone is slow to give answers to basic questions they may be described as having “latency of response”
Mood and affect:
Mood is how the patient describes their emotional state, and affect is the emotional expression visible on the patient’s face. Affect may be referred to as incongruent if, for example, a person was laughing while speaking about a very sad topic.
Alterations in perception could include hallucinations (which may occur in any of the five senses) and illusions (skewed perceptions of “real” environmental stimuli)
Thought form/thought process:
This considers the “how” of a person’s thinking. Is it logical? Is it disorganized? I’ll talk more about this in tomorrow’s post on terminology. Thought form isn’t assessed based on asking the patient-specific questions, but rather is evaluated based on the entirety of the interview.
This considers the “what” of a person’s thinking, and includes delusions (which I’ll break down further in tomorrow’s post), obsessions, and suicidal or homicidal ideation (commonly abbreviated as SI/HI).
Cognition and sensorium:
This includes things like orientation, concentration, and memory. Further formal testing may sometimes be required. A brief test like the mini mental state exam or MMSE (despite what it sounds like, no relation to the MSE) might cover questions like what day/month/year it is, spell “world” backwards, subtract by 7’s (“serial sevens”), remember 3 objects, and copy a geographic design. Baseline intelligence and education are relevant here; if someone with no formal education can’t subtract by 7’s that doesn’t necessarily indicate there’s a problem, but if an astrophysicist can’t do that task it’s a pretty good indicator of significant impairment.
Insight and judgment:
Insight refers to the patient’s level of awareness of the symptoms they’re experiencing and the impact those symptoms are having on their functioning. Insight tends to be poorer with some illnesses compared to others, and may fluctuate depending on the severity of the symptoms someone’s having at any particular time. Someone may have good insight into their symptoms without necessarily agreeing with the clinician on the cause of those symptoms. Judgment refers to the extent to which a person’s judgment, particularly with regards to behaviour, is influenced by the symptoms they’re currently experiencing. An obvious example of poor judgment would be someone who was manic blowing a bunch of money at a casino.
So there you have it, the basic pieces of a mental status exam (MSE). In tomorrow’s post, I’ll explain some more of the terminology that’s commonly used in assessing mental health.