Health & Healthcare, Science & research

Is Chiropractic What It Claims To Be?

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Let’s say your back hurts.  You go to a chiropractor, over a few visits they crack a few joints, and that’s all she wrote, right?  That’s certainly what I used to think about chiropractic.  The thing is, though, there’s some modern back cracking practice built on some rather out there origins.

Traditional/straight chiropractic

Chiropractic was founded in the mid-1890s by D.D. Palmer, and according to Wikipedia, he claimed that the idea came to him from “the other world.”  Which other world, you might ask?  Apparently, it was a doctor who had died 50 years prior.  So yeah, we’re not starting off well.

Old-school chiropractic types, also known “straight” chiropractors, believed in vitalism, meaning that there’s some sort of life energy that distinguishes living from non-living things.  Ah, non-measurable life force energy, a popular favourite in quackery.  These folks also reject scientific principles.  More modern “mixers” accept some of the original beliefs, but also incorporate science.

In traditional chiropractic, all health problems are seen as stemming from vertebral subluxation, as this interferes with the “innate intelligence” expressed through the nervous system, which in turn impairs the body’s natural healing abilities.  These so-called subluxations aren’t actually visible on X-ray.  “Mixers” accept the idea of other causes of disease in addition to vertebral subluxation.

According to an editorial by Johnson et al, the American Medical Association put up a fight against chiropractic, even creating a “Committee on Quackery” to “contain and eliminate chiropractic.”  In 1966, the AMA adopted a policy that described chiropractic as an “unscientific cult” with a “rigid adherence to an irrational, unscientific approach to disease causation.”

Modern “mixer” chiropractic

Websites of modern chiropractic organizations are mostly focused on the back pain and other sorts of joint pain that you might expect.

The website of the Association of Chiropractic Colleges says this about vertebral subluxation:

“Chiropractic is Concerned [sic] with the preservation and restoration of health, and focuses particular attention on the subluxation.

A subluxation is a complex of functional and/or structural and/or pathological articular changes that compromise neural integrity and may influence organ system function and general health.”

Sounds a bit different from the “straight” perspective, but a subtle flavour is still there.

The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health has this to say about chiropractic:

“… [It] emphasizes the body’s ability to heal itself. Treatment typically involves manual therapy, often including spinal manipulation. Other forms of treatment, such as exercise and nutritional counseling, may be used as well. “

It adds that the purpose of joint manipulations is to improve joint motion and function.  That sounds quite reasonable.  Nutritional counselling seems like a bit of a random add-on,  and I didn’t see anything that explained the reasoning behind that.

Side effects of spinal manipulations are common, and it’s estimated that up to 61% of people experience a short-term worsening of pain and stiffness.  In some cases, manipulation of the upper spine can lead to permanent disability or even death.  Strokes are estimated to occur as an adverse event in 5 out of 100,000 manipulations; note that this is number of manipulations, not number of patients.

Still quacking

In my neck of the woods, there have been chiropractors in the news in recent years for taking an anti-vaccination stance.  The original chiropractor D.D. Palmer described vaccines as “filthy animal poisons,” and the basis for this was his rejection of the medical field as a whole.  Modern anti-vax chiropractors focus heavily on what they see as downsides to the vaccine without acknowledging any public health benefits.  “Straight” chiropractors are also against water fluoridation.

More recently in my province (British Columbia, Canada), the regulatory body for chiropractors has issued a directive that chiropractors are not to make claims that they can reposition fetuses in utero, including turning them from breech position.  They’re also not allowed to claim that they can make labour shorter, easier, and less traumatic, or that they can treat postpartum depression.  The regulator cites lack of evidence as the reason for its directive.  The fact that this is even an issue at all clearly implies that some chiropractors were making these unsupported claims in the first place.

If you’re interested in some straight chiropractic quacky fun, you can check out the video here (I haven’t hyperlinked it because I’d rather not give them a backlink): https://www.straightchiro.com/resources/videos/spinal-hygiene-video/

Overall, it sounds like chiropractic started with a foundation of quackery, and then most chiropractors (although not all, like the guy in the video) built some reasonable layers over top.  The problem with shaky foundations, though, is how do you trust what you’re walking on?

Were you aware of chiropractic’s quacky past (and present)?

 

For more like this, visit The Science Corner: Debunking Pseudoscience page.

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26 thoughts on “Is Chiropractic What It Claims To Be?”

  1. I didn’t know this. My Dad’s been going to a chiropractor recently because of back pain; he seems to think it’s helped. Whether it would have happened anyway is another question.

  2. I go auch when I think about it. The most that I’m willing to have done is a traditional massage, no need to deblock any chi highways in my spine thank you.
    I’ve seen gruesome videos where those so called ‘doctors’ just torture people and even disabled children undergo some kind of ‘treatment’ which is clearly not good.
    The government should ban all those who are ‘claiming’ to heal when there are health risks or serious financial risks involved.

  3. Not surprised. I went to a “gentle” one for around a year on the rec of a regular doc I trusted. There were minor neck massages and some vibrating thingie attached to my shoulder. Nothing happened except a slight lightening of my finances due to the insurance copay per visit. He wanted to do treatments on my feet, which he insisted were messed up in some way (they aren’t), and also warned me if I quit going I would soon lose mobility in my right arm. That was 10 years ago 🙄

      1. Good point. Although, while I’d like to go to a massage therapist too, it’s never quite happened. I have some intermittent lower back issues, and am concerned about the therapy considering those. I’ve been told not to worry, but I invariably do.

  4. We have recurring low back problems. First time we went to Chiro was 25 years ago when our back hurt and we could barely walk. Chiro said, “we can’t help disc issues.” He then proceeded to attempt to sign us up for a treatment plan of x weeks for $750 prepaid. We declined, since he couldn’t actually treat us when we were “acute” and never went back.

    Car accident about 5 years ago. It paid for Chiro so we went. It’s kind of like worrying: we have no evidence that it helped and it felt like we were doing “something.” Had to go to ER for something, and ER docs said that Chiro neck adjustments rupture blood vessels in patient’s necks frequently enough that they had to check us for that! We never had our neck adjusted again and when insurance ran out, we did not return to Chiro

    Our Physical therapists have incorporated spinal work in the last 25 years, but very gently—no cracking

  5. Yeah, my dad’s always preaching against seeing a chiropractor unless you’re out of options. He senses that they do more harm than good, and that it can just mess you up further. I’m extremely grateful to not have back pain, and I feel sorry for anyone who struggles with it. It’s just tough, because aside from pain pills, what can they do, right? My paternal grandmother had severe osteoporosis, and when she started having massive back pain, they’d just send her home from the ER without doing anything. (Don’t get me started. This is what the local hospital does in order to see if you’re really sick, which means you’d come back the next day. THEN, they treat whatever you’re in for. My sister had agonizing pain in her inner female organs, and they sent her home. When she returned the next day, they were finally like, “Oh, okay, we’ll operate.” So I’ve got this whole script planned if I wind up in the ER, and I’m gonna say, “Look, buddy, my appendix is rupturing RIGHT NOW, so if you think you’re gonna send me home, I will sue your hospital six ways to Sunday.”) Anyway, chiropractors. Yeah. If I had back pain, I’d research other alternative options, like supplements, or whatever. I’m not sure. But chiropractors do indeed scare me.

      1. 😀 😀 😀 Having seen the pattern happen to at least two people I know, I’m onto their tricks. They won’t see me coming! 😀

  6. I worked in the office of a sports Chiropractor for 3 years. I saw some people helped and others not. He was actually quite good at spotting MS in patients and making sure they went to get tested rather than adjusting them needlessly.

    My mom went to one who was a quack and when I worked as a personal trainer he hired me to do physical therapy with his patients. I quit after 1 week because he was nuts.

    My take on Chiropractic is you need to strengthen the surrounding muscles or you are bound to a life of chiropractic adjustments to keep things in place and it can become costly. There are some who are nuts, but I think that’s the case with all medical professions. Some are great, other’s not so much. I went to an internal doctor who told me to stop talking so much and chewing gum and that would help my stomach problems WTF and that was after his office manager asked when I was due and I wasn’t pregnant. I told them both to fuck off and left the office. Eventually I got the right doctor and ended up needing an 8 hour abdominal surgery. My insides had been ripped to shit after my 4th baby.

    In my case, I have a cyst on my spinal column creating severe spinal stenosis. No amount of chiropractic is going to help that. Just imagine if I went complaining of back pain, lol, they would have been adjusting me forever. I have no doubt they would have seen things “0ff” on my x-rays and would have tried to convince me that was the cause of my back pain. I can help my symptoms by strengthening the muscles that have been weakened from over compensation. My hope is to avoid spine surgery at all cost.

    My recent Ketamine fun was for mystery widespread body pain.

    1. You’re right, there are some nutbars in any field. Stop talking so much? Seriously? And no one should be asking a woman when she’s due unless she is clearly about to give birth any minute now,

  7. Ha! I’ve always been a bit leery with chiropractic without having any idea about its origins. Although, I do know some people who swear by it. I suppose like everything there are some who are genuinely interested in helping people with pain and others who are quacks! Either way, this was a very interesting read.

    1. It sounds like the ones who stick to back pain actually know what they’re doing, at least to some extent, and the out-there types are at least in the minority.

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