In this series, I dig a little deeper into the meaning of psychology-related terms. This week’s term is emotional intelligence.
Emotional intelligence involves the ability to recognize emotions in both the self and others, and then make decisions that take into account those emotions.
The first noted use of the term dates back to 1964. It was used by a number of authors in the 1980’s, and then became popular in 1995 with the publication of the best-selling book Emotional Intelligence – Why It Can Matter More Than IQ.
There are different models of emotional intelligence that characterize it as an innate trait, a learned ability, or a blend of both.
The ability-based model includes four areas of skill: perceiving, using, understanding, and managing emotions. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is a psychometric test associated with the ability-based model, although concerns have been raised about its validity.
Daniel Goleman’s mixed model includes five constructs: self-awareness, self-regulation, social skill, empathy, and motivation. There are a couple of different psychometric tests associated with this model.
The trait-based approach considers emotional intelligence to be essentially emotional self-efficacy, or one’s perception of their emotional abilities. This is viewed as part of one’s personality rather than a learned ability. The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) is a psychometric test associated with this model.
Concerns have been raised by other researchers about the emotional intelligence constructs as well as the psychometric tests associated with them. That’s actually one of the interesting parts of psychology – researchers develop constructs to try to capture a phenomenon so that it can be explored further. However, those constructs don’t always fit what’s actually going on, even if on the surface they appear to be correct.
The idea of a type of intelligence related to emotions sounds reasonable, but there are a number of possible reasons why it might not be quite right. A question that jumps out at me right away is whether emotional intelligence is one thing. It may actually involve a number of different phenomena that happen to intersect.
However, emotional intelligence has picked up steam in popular culture, particularly when it comes to the business world. Mark Manson, the author of The Subtle Art of Not Giving a F*ck, writes in a blog post that emotional intelligence is skill-based, and “developing emotional intelligence comes down to not being a fucknut.”
There are various emotional intelligence tests floating around on the internet that haven’t been validated by research. They might talk about an EQ score but, unlike IQ, there isn’t a single authoritative test that’s universally agreed upon. There’s probably one on Facebook that Russian hackers will use to steal all of your information, so keep an eye out for that. Here’s one from the Institute of Health and Human Potential that you can try, although don’t take it too seriously: https://www.ihhp.com/free-eq-quiz/
There’s also an interesting emotional intelligence quiz on the website of Greater Good Magazine out of UC Berkeley. It takes a very different approach than other tests; it presents photos of people’s facial expressions, and then you pick the correct expression description out of the multiple-choice answers. After each question, it points out specific areas on the face that are indicative of the actual emotion displayed. It’s here: https://greatergood.berkeley.edu/quizzes/ei_quiz
Overall, emotional intelligence is an interesting example of a concept from the field of psychology that has exploded into pop psychology without waiting to see if there is actually a strong grounding for it. The take-home message, though, is that emotional intelligence, as measured by any number of different kinds of tests, isn’t as clearly an actual thing as cognitive intelligence, as measured by IQ.
You can find the rest of my What Is series here.
Source: Wikipedia: Emotional intelligence