What is... psychology series

What Is… Reality?

graphic of a head with cogs turning inside

In this series, I dig a little deeper into the meaning of psychological terms.  This week’s term is reality.

This week’s term may seem a bit silly at first glance, but bear with me.

Some of us may experience psychosis at times due to mental illness.  In the simplest terms, psychosis involves a disconnect from reality.  That begs the question, though, what exactly is reality, and who gets to define it?

There are a lot of ways of conceiving of reality, which may be influenced by the field of philosophy and various others.  A term often used in philosophy is ontology, which is the philosophical study of being.  I remember having a hard time wrapping my head around this in grad school.

Social constructionism

Part of the theory base for my master’s thesis was social constructionism; from that perspective, reality as we experience and understand it is socially constructed.  That means that our experience of mental illness goes beyond simply the biological effects of the illness and is shaped by what we’ve learned from our social community’s understanding of what mental illness is and what it means to have a mental illness.  That’s not to say mental illness doesn’t exist, but it would be impossible to separate from social constructs.  To me at least this makes a lot of sense.


Realism is the idea that there is an underlying, immutable version of reality.  Where this starts to fall apart in my mind is that even if there is a concrete reality at some level, does that even matter when the perception of that reality is an inherently subjective experience?  What I perceive in the environment, even when fully compos mentis, is going to be quite different from what my guinea pigs perceive in the same environment.  If I perceive something as blue and the guinea pigs perceive it as grey, are any of us right or wrong?

Epistemological dualism

That brings me to another concept I didn’t really get in school – epistemology.  Epistemology looks at how we know things, like whether the world we perceive is the real world itself or an internalized copy.  Epistemological dualism is the view that our conscious experience is not, in fact, a direct representation of reality.

Quantum physics

To head in a different direction, quantum physics involves uncertainty principles and superpositioning and all of those things well beyond the grasp of most of us.  Quantum physics is the source of the Schröedinger’s cat thought experiment, in which a cat is seen as simultaneously dead and alive to match on a larger scale what is seen with superpositioning of quantum particles.  Although this is just a thought experiment, where would the reality lie?

So what is reality?

So, if no one can agree on what reality is or isn’t, how does one evaluate a psychotic lack of connection to reality?  Part of it is concordance with other people’s perceptions.  Not everyone’s going to agree, but there should be some element of similarity.  Another element is the meaning attached to the perception.  In psychosis, there is often tremendous meaning attached to what would otherwise seem to be a relatively minor sensory stimulus.

While a medical model of reality may be more concrete than philosophical approaches, philosophy probably feels a bit vague for most of us.  As long as we’re perceiving the world through our fallible human senses, reality will probably always be an elusive concept, and psychosis will always be a fallible construct.

To quote the wise words of Lisa Turtle from Saved by the Bell: “But I ask, if I think not, am I not?  I think not.  Don’t you think?”

You can find the rest of the What Is series here. You may also be interested in the post Perceived vs. Objective Reality

Source: Wikipedia: Reality

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8 thoughts on “What Is… Reality?”

  1. Wow, it’s never occurred to me that different people/species have a different reality from one another, even though they are in the same environment, situation, etc.

  2. I’m not sure reality is even a thing lol. Maybe this is like the matrix and is not base reality at all? My dreams feel just as real as this when I am in them, how do I know this isn’t some kind of illusion too? The strangeness of quantum physics makes me wonder too! Stuff like the double slit experiment especially.

  3. I’ve wondered about that, too! Like what if the red I see is someone else’s green? Like, if you were suddenly in someone else’s body, you’d be a different height, your center of balance might change, your vision and hearing would be different, your aches and pains would appear or disappear, who knows? It’s trippy!! A very interesting topic, and a great blog post!

  4. A world exists. That is for sure. What that world is though is probably not what we agree that it is. But if I am not careful I can become very easily attached to what I believe that world to be. And what I believe that world to be, effects the way I relate to it. If I believe in my self-efficacy in facing it, I will be able. If not, then likely not. Nice post.

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