It’s Media Literacy Week November 5-9, 2018, so I wanted to write about media literacy when it comes to one of my favourite go-to sources of information, Wikipedia. We’ve come a long way since I was in high school and the World Book Encyclopedia reigned supreme. Still, with World Book, you could pretty confident that the information you were getting was accurate. On Wikipedia, how do you separate the fact from the fake news?
To begin with, it’s important to understand how Wikipedia works. According to Wikipedia’s About page, it is collaborative and openly edited, with around 72,000 active contributors. Anyone can edit a page, although the user must log in first and the IP address is recorded. I did some editing on Wikipedia several years ago, and was surprised to learn just how much activity goes on behind the scenes. This can be seen through the tabs at the top of every article page: article (which is what most of us stick to), talk (discussions about issues related to the page), source, and view history.
The fact that anyone can write/edit means that misinformation can be posted. However, the large army of Wikipedia editors means that often someone will often catch the issue and correct it. Still, inaccuracies and bias can and do make their way into articles. So what are some ways that you can evaluate the veracity of what you’re reading?
Is there a message box at the top of the article?
Pages may be flagged by editors for a variety of reasons. Sometimes these are housekeeping issues that don’t impact the content, but some flags warn about the reliability of the content. It’s best to consider the overall value of the article in the context of these warnings.
Is a statement referenced?
There is a list of references at the bottom of the article, but within the text, there are superscript numbers to connect specific statements to the corresponding reference. Hovering the mouse over this number will bring up an info box with the reference information. If a statement doesn’t cite a reference, it’s possible that it’s accurate and the author simply didn’t provide a citation, but unreferenced information should generally be considered less reliable.
What kind of reference is used?
The types of references used can vary greatly. Academic journals are generally the most reliable, although some journals are lower quality than others. Some sources may be heavily biased, such as extremist political websites.
It can be difficult to determine the quality of books that are referenced, but as a very broad generalization, academic textbooks have titles that are fairly simple and dry, whereas a book with a highly sensationalistic title may be more likely to be biased.
Are there multiple references for the same point?
If there are multiple credible sources agreeing on something, this increases the likelihood that the information is accurate, particularly if the sources can reasonably be assumed to be independent of one another. Of course, there are no guarantees.
Check the “Talk” page
Articles on controversial subjects can have very active talk pages, which can give you some insight into issues editors have raised about the content. You may see that a page has been restricted for editing to try to prevent inappropriate material from being added. The information on the talk page may give some indication of the reliability of the article’s content.
With so much information bombarding us from a myriad of different sources, it can be difficult to tell what’s real and what’s a load of BS. However, knowing what to look for can make it easier to evaluate information, whether that’s on Wikipedia, in the news, or whatever the source. Improving our media literacy puts all of us in a better position to join in the conversations that matter to us.
There’s more on pseudoscience and public health on The Science Corner.The Science Corner: Debunking Pseudoscience